Farmers cultivate gerbera flowers as a cash crop. Gerbera is a perennial flower. Which originated in Africa. It has about 70 different species. The gerbera flower is loved for its beauty. Its flowers are stalkless. Which are found in many colors. Its flowers look fresh for many days. So they are used more as decoration. Gerbera flowers come in a variety of colors. And its seedlings can easily grow in the summer season. That’s why ordinary people can make it colorful and elegant by planting it in their homes, courtyards and gardens in summer.
Temperate and hot climate is considered best for gerbera cultivation. The winter season is not considered suitable for its cultivation. Because of the winter frosts and extreme cold, the plants here do not grow well. It can also be grown in light alkaline soils. Demand for this specialty has grown significantly as a result of recent corporate scandals. In India, it is widely grown in West Bengal, Uttaranchal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Arunachal Pradesh.
If you are also thinking of cultivating it, today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
Gerbera requires fertile soil with proper drainage. But to get more yield, it should be taken in sandy loam rich in organic matter. The pH of the soil for its cultivation. Value should be between 5 and 8.
Climate and temperature
Hot and temperate climate is considered suitable for gerbera cultivation. Winter season is not suitable for gerbera cultivation. Its seedlings do not grow well in winter. Its plants grow easily in summer and rainy season. During the hot summer season, its seedlings need light shade and more irrigation.
Gerbera seeds need normal temperature to germinate. After seed germination, its seedlings can easily grow in summer at a maximum temperature of 35 degrees. It can also be grown in winter where the night temperature is around 10 degrees. Temperatures of 25 degrees during the day and 15 degrees at night are considered most suitable for its cultivation.
Many improved varieties of gerbera are available in the market. These varieties are based on the color of the flowers and their yield.
Red Flower Varieties – Fredorella, Rubired, Vesta, Tamara, Salvador and Red Impulse
Yellow Flowers – Fredking, Supernova, Mammoth, Nadja, Flowermoon, Donnie, Uranus, Talsa and Panama
Orange flower – Kozak, Carrera, Mara Sol, Orange Classic and Goliath
Pink flowers – Pink Elegance, Terra Queen, Valentine, Mara, Roslyn and Salvador
Creamy white flowers – Dalma, Farida, Winter Queen, Delphi, Snowflake and White Maria
Purple flowers – Treasure and Black Jack
The land needs to be well drained and clean for gerbera cultivation. For this, the remnants of old crops in the field should be destroyed first. After destroying the remnants of old crops, deep plowing should be done in the field and after that the field should be left vacant for a few days. Leaving the field open destroys harmful pests in the soil. Then apply appropriate amount of old manure or earthworm compost in the field and mix it in the soil. The field should be plowed two to three times to mix the fertilizer in the soil.
After plowing, water the field. Three to four days after plowing, when the topsoil starts drying, re-plow the field by spraying appropriate amount of chemical fertilizer in the field. This makes the soil look humid. Once the soil is well drained, it should be leveled by threshing in the field.
Gerbera is cultivated by seed and plantation. It is cultivated in flat lands by maids. For this, after putting the paddy in the field, the right size maid should be done. The distance between these pastures should be about two feet.
Gerbera seedlings are produced by seeds, cuttings and tissue culture.
Through the seeds
Seedlings are sown in the nursery. To prepare seedlings by seed, their seeds should be removed from the flower and immediately planted in the nursery prepared for germination. Its seeds germinate in 5 to 7 weeks. But seedlings produced by seeds take longer to produce. Therefore, it is not advisable to grow seedlings from seed.
This method is mostly used in mountainous areas. Using this method, after uprooting the plants, the nodules are formed, put in polythene and kept in the nursery. Plants made in this way grow very fast. And the flowers in the plants are ready to bloom very quickly. The middle part of the bundle should not be buried in the ground.
Tissue culture is considered to be the best method of producing gerbera seedlings. By this method, new plants are formed from buds, flower tissue culture and the tissue of the front part of the plant. This is how seedlings are prepared in the laboratory.
Planting method and time
Farmers can plant gerbera seedlings in any season of the year except winter. But to get good and good yield, the crop should be harvested from June to the end of August. Apart from this, February and March are also suitable months for tree growth.
Gerbera seedlings are planted on the embankment prepared in the field. When planting in the field, seedlings prepared in the nursery are planted at a distance from the field. When planting seedlings in the field, its roots should be completely buried in the ground. Any newly formed leaves that do not press into the soil. Its seedlings should be planted in the evening. Therefore, germination of trees is good.
Irrigation of plants
Gerbera trees need more irrigation. Water the seedlings immediately after planting in the field. Then light irrigation should be continued till the plants grow well. And water the plants properly until they grow well.
In summer, water the plants twice a week. And in winter, it is better to water the plants at intervals of 15 to 20 days. Its plants do not need water in the rainy season. But if it does not rain on time, water the plants as required.
Gerbera plants need fertilizer to grow quickly and well. For this, while preparing the field at the beginning, 15 to 20 carts of old manure per hectare should be applied in the field and it should be well mixed in the soil. In addition, during final plowing of the field, apply 30 kg N, 40 kg P and 40 kg Potash in the form of chemical fertilizers and mix them well in the soil.
Weed control is very important in gerbera plants. Because its trees are not very tall. Many types of pests are found on plants due to uncontrolled weeds in such conditions. Its effect is also seen on the yield of trees.
Weed control should be done naturally while planting. To control weeds in a natural way, the plants are pruned two to three times. The first weeding of seedlings should be done about 20 to 25 days after planting. The remaining weeding should be done 15 to 20 days after the first weeding.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Many diseases are found in gerbera plants. In gerbera plants these diseases are insects and bacteria. If the seedlings are not taken care of at the right time, their growth will stop. The effect is visible on income.
Mhow is a pest caused by gerbera plants. Its insects are found in groups on the soft parts of the plant. Which appears to be very small in size. The colors of these insects are green, yellow and black. These insects absorb the sap from the leaves, flowers and stalks of plants and destroy them. Proper amount of Malathion should be sprayed on the seedlings to control the disease.
In gerbera plants, white fly disease affects the leaves of the plant. The pests of this disease live on the lower surface of the leaves and damage the plants. Its insect is the juice of the leaves of the plant. As a result, the leaves turn yellow and dry out. This stops the growth of the plant. In order to control this disease spray the plant with appropriate amount of Roger medicine.
In gerbera plants, the effect of leaf minor is most evident on the leaves of the plant. The effect of this disease is to produce white-brown transparent notch-like stripes on the leaves of the plant. As a result, the plants do not get proper amount of nutrients. And stops the growth of the plant. Therefore, the income is also low. To control this disease, spray chlorodine or toxafen on the plants in appropriate quantity.
Root rot disease is a fungal disease in gerbera plants. Which appears due to stagnant water in the trees or excessive moisture in the field. This disease stops the growth of plants. And the leaves of the tree begin to turn yellow and fall off. So after a while the whole plant is destroyed. Appropriate amount of copper oxychloride should be sprayed on the roots of the plant to control this disease. Also, do not store water in the field.
Foliage disease in gerbera plants is caused by a fungus called Philosticta gerberry and Alternaria speciosa. Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during this time. As the disease progresses, the size of the spots increases. This stops the growth of the plant. Proper application of Bavistin should be sprayed on the plants to control the disease.
Flowering and pruning
Gerbera seedlings start yielding 5 to 6 months after planting in the field. When the flowers are in full bloom, they should be harvested. Immediately after cutting the flowers, place them in a pot filled with water. Harvest should be done in two days at the beginning of flowering. But when the flowers start to bloom more, it should be harvested daily.
After harvesting flowers, collect good flowers with sticks of the same size. Then make a bundle of about 12 to 15 branches. It should then be packed in appropriate containers and sent to market for sale.
Income and profit
Gerbera trees produce 200 to 250 flowers per square meter per year if given proper environment. When planted in open field, only around one and a half hundred flowers appear. Farmers earn a lot by selling them in the market.