Fennel is cultivated as a spice crop. Fennel is green and small in size. Fennel is very useful for humans. It is used in pickles and vegetables to enhance the aroma and taste. In addition, dill is also used after meals with sweets for quick digestion of food.
Eating Fennel cures many stomach-related ailments. Fennel is also currently used as a mouth freshener. A certain type of essential oil is found in fennel. Which is used commercially in the manufacture of soaps and shampoos.
Fennel is about three feet tall. On which the leaves are small in size. Fennel grows well in temperate climates. Its plant needs both winter and summer. The pH of the soil for its cultivation. The value should remain normal. In India, it is widely grown in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and Punjab.
If you are also thinking of cultivating it, today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
Adequate fossil clay soils are considered good for dill cultivation. It cannot be grown in high sandy soils. And water should not be stored in the soil for its cultivation. Waterlogging causes plants to deteriorate quickly. The pH of the soil for its cultivation. Value should be between 6.5 and 8.
Climate and temperature
Dill cultivation requires dry and cold climate. In India, rabi crops are grown during the winter season. But more severe winters and frosts in winter are detrimental to its cultivation. Fennel can be grown in winter, but it takes heat to ripen. Fennel plants do not get much rain.
Dill cultivation initially requires normal temperature at the time of seed germination. After the seeds germinate, the plants need a temperature of about 20 degrees to grow. And then the plants need a temperature of 25 to 30 degrees during the ripening of the crop.
There are several improved varieties of dill. Which are taken in different places according to their income.
This variety has been developed by Shri Karan Narendra Krishi Vidyapeeth Jobner, Jaipur. Plants of this variety start producing about 150 days after sowing. The plants of this species are large, stiff and strong in size. The flowers on which the bees live are large and thick-seeded. The yield of this variety was found to be about 15 quintals per hectare.
This breed has also been produced by Shri Karan Narendra Krishi Vidyapeeth Jobner, Jaipur. Plants of this species are ready for harvest 110 to 130 days after sowing. This breed is designed to produce more in less time. Trees of this species are small in size. The yield per hectare is about 17 quintals.
This variety has been developed by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Fennel is more suitable for mixed farming. This type of plant produces more branches. The flowers that have bees on them are small in size. The yield of this variety has been found to be around 6 quintals per hectare. Its seedlings are ready for harvest about 200 days after sowing.
Gujarat Badishep 1
A variety of fennel has been developed by Jagudan, a spice research center in Gujarat. This variety is designed to grow in dry places. This type of plant looks like a bush. Mature seeds are ready for harvest about 200 days after planting. The shape of the flower canopy formed on this type of plant is normal. And its seeds are long, thick, and dark green in color. The yield per hectare is around 16 quintals.
Haryana Agricultural University has developed this variety of fennel. Trees of this species are of normal size. The flowers that have bees on them are large in size. Which takes about 200 days to prepare. The seeds of this variety are long and thick. The yield per hectare has been found to be 15 to 20 quintals.
This variety is produced by Jagudan, a spice research center in Gujarat. Trees of this species are more spreading and tall. Flowers on which bees are large in size. Plants of this species are ready for harvesting about 210 days after sowing. The color of its seeds is striped light green. The yield per hectare is about 17 quintals. This type of plant does not suffer from inflammatory diseases.
N. R. C. S. s a. F1
A variety of fennel has been developed by the National Research Center on Seed Spices, Tabiji, Rajasthan. Seeds of this variety are sown as early crop. Its flowers are large the size of a bee. The grains formed on it appear to be medium length thick. The yield of this variety was found to be about 15 quintals per hectare.
There are many more types. Which are grown in different places. In which Gujarat Badishep-2, Rajendra Saurabh, S. 79, Udaipur F31 and 32.
For cultivation of fennel, the soil in the field should be well drained and clean. So that you do not have to face any problem while printing. For this, before plowing the field, all the remnants of old crops in the field should be destroyed. After that plowing should be done and deep plowing should be done. The field should be left open for a few days after planting. Then apply old manure in the field and apply two to three oblique manure with its tillage. So that the compost manure is well mixed in the soil. Then all the lumps in the soil should be blown away by rotavator. So the farm looks flat.
Fennel is cultivated mainly by seeds. But some farmers also grow it from seedlings. For this, seeds are sown in the nursery in a pro-tray about two months in advance. Its seeds are sown in the nursery in the month of July. Then, when the seedlings germinate well, they are planted in the field. But this method is very difficult. As a result, farmers grow their seeds directly in the field.
Method and timing of seed planting
Fennel seeds are grown and planted in flat places. The first 3 x 5 foot bed is made for transplantation in the plane. The farmer then sprinkles the seeds in the field and mixes them with his hands or teeth. So the seed goes one to two centimeters down into the soil. At the time of transplanting on the med, its seeds are sown on both sides of the med. The distance from med to med should be about two feet for planting on med. On which the plants are planted at a distance of 10 to 15 cm. Its seedlings are planted in the same position on the med.
Dill is cultivated along with rabi crops. For its planting, its seeds should be sown in last week of September and first week of October. This gives the plant full time to ripen and mature.
Its seeds should be processed before planting in the field. Cow urine or bavistin should be used for seed treatment. 8 to 10 kg of seed is required for sowing seeds in one hectare. It takes about 5 kg of seeds to plant seedlings in the nursery.
Fennel is grown in dry soil. Therefore, water the field immediately after planting the seeds or seedlings. One species of fennel tree needs more irrigation. About 10 irrigations are required for its seedlings to mature and mature. The plants should be watered first in a slow stream of water. This is because when irrigated in a strong current, the seed is carried away and goes to the edge. After the first watering, the remaining water should be given at intervals of 10 to 12 days. But do not let the lack of water appear while the flowers and grains are forming on the tree. This is because given the right amount of water, the grain gets better and more abundant. It also gives higher yields.
Fertilizer requirement for cultivation of one variety of fennel is the same as for other spice crops. When preparing the field for its cultivation at the beginning, 12 to 15 carts of old manure should be plowed in the field and it should be well mixed in the soil. Then at the time of last plowing of the field one bag of DAP per acre should be sprayed in the field. In addition, when the plants start growing at the time of watering, 20 to 25 kg of urea should be given to the plants at the time of third or fourth irrigation. And when the plants start flowering, spray the same amount of urea on the plants along with irrigation. Therefore, the seeds formed on the plant are well formed.
Weed control can be done both chemically and naturally in fennel cultivation. For control of chemical weeds in planting, seeds should be sprayed with appropriate amount of pendimethalin in water immediately after planting. Weeds are controlled naturally by hoeing the plants. The first seedling should be planted about 20 days after sowing. The first weeding should be done lightly. All other pots should be removed at 15 days interval after the first pots. It is better to make 3 to 4 cones of fennel seedlings.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Fennel plants are less susceptible to disease. But there are some pests and viral diseases that cause more damage to the plant.
The effect of collar rot disease on dill plants is due to stagnant water. Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during this time. This causes the leaves to turn yellow. As the effects of this disease increase, the tree is completely destroyed and falls down. Do not save water in the field to prevent this disease. In addition, if disease appears on the plant, spray 1.0% Bordeaux mixture on the roots.
Powdery mildew is also called chachya. When the disease occurs, the leaves of the tree turn brown. Increasing its effect stops the growth of plants, its effect is also seen on production. The disease affects plants in February and March. Apply sulfur spray on the plants to control the disease.
In fennel plants, the disease is caused by fungi such as Remularia and Alternaria. At the onset of the disease, small brown spots appear on the plants. Which gradually turn black. Due to the growing effect of this disease on the plants, seeds are not formed in flowering bees and the size of the seeds appears smaller when the seeds are formed. Which are made in very small quantities. To prevent this disease, Manzobek should be sprayed on the plants.
It is an insect disease that occurs on a species of dill plant. Which seems to change seasons. Insects of this disease appear in a group on a tree. Which looks green, yellow and black. Their size is too small. These kits absorb plant sap and damage the plant. This reduces the formation of grain on the plant. Apply neem oil, imidacloprid or thymethaxam spray on the plants two to three times in 10 days interval to control the disease.
Planting and threshing
Fennel seeds are ready for harvest about 150 to 200 days after sowing. When the color of the leaves on the plant starts to turn yellow and the seeds start to look a bit hard, its flower bed should be cut off.
Cut off the flower canopy and dry it in strong sunlight. This dries and hardens the seeds. And their color appears light greenish yellow. Its seeds are then separated from the flower bed. Currently there are many types of machines available to separate its seeds.
Income and profit
The average yield of one variety of dill is 15 to 20 quintals per hectare. Its market price is Rs.5000 per quintal. According to this, a farmer easily earns from one hectare to one lakh.