Beans are grown as a cereal crop. The size of Rajma lentils is bigger than other pulses. Kidney beans are used in raw form in vegetables. In its raw form, it is high in protein. Rajma trees are found in the form of shrubs and vines. Who need support to grow. There are many physical benefits to eating dal. It is cultivated in India during both Rabi and Kharif seasons.
In India, it is widely cultivated in the northeastern and southern states. The tropical climate is conducive to the cultivation of kidney beans. Plants need normal climate for its growth. And its trees also have a general need for rain. Soil pH for bean cultivation. The value should also be normal. Due to good market price of both raw soybean and grains in bean cultivation, bean cultivation is becoming profitable for farmers.
If you are also thinking of cultivating it, today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
Light clay soil is required for cultivation of Rajma. It can also be cultivated in watershed black soil with proper drainage. The pH of the soil for its cultivation. The value should be between 6.5 and 7.5.
Climate and temperature
Rajma cultivation has a special combination of climate and temperature. Its cultivation requires dry and wet climate. It is cultivated in different places in India during both Rabi and Kharif seasons. Planting is done in Rabi season in plains and kharif season in hilly areas. Both extreme heat and cold are detrimental to the growth of kidney bean seedlings. Its trees do not need much rain.
20 to 25 degree temperature is suitable for germination of seeds. After germination, its plants grow well at a temperature of 10 to 30 degrees. But during the flowering period when the temperature is less than 10 degrees and more than 30 degrees, more damage is done to the crop. During this time the flowers on the tree fall off.
There are several improved varieties of kidney beans, which are grown in different locations according to the suitability of the environment.
This variety of Rajma is also called Uday. Trees of this species are of normal height. Its seeds are reddish in color. Its seedlings mature in about 125 to 130 days after sowing. The yield per hectare is about 30 quintals.
The seedlings of this variety are ready to ripen in about 120 to 125 days after sowing. The yield per hectare is 20 to 25 quintals. The seeds of this variety of Rajma appear white in color.
The seeds of this variety of Rajma appear red in color. This variety is mainly grown in Northeast India and Maharashtra. Plants of this species are ready to ripen in about 115 to 120 days after sowing. The yield per hectare is 25 to 30 quintals.
Seedlings of this variety of Rajma are ready to ripen in about 125 to 130 days after sowing. Trees of this species are of normal height. Whose yield ranges from 20 to 25 quintals. The seeds of this species appear with red dots.
Rajma is cultivated as a late crop. Seedlings of this variety mature in about 130 to 135 days after planting. The color of its seeds looks dark red. The yield per hectare is 20 to 25 quintals. Its trees are of normal height.
Rajma seedlings can be planted in both seasons. Plants of this species are ready to ripen in about 120 to 125 days after sowing. The yield of this variety has been found to be around 25 quintals per hectare. Its seeds have brown spots.
Apart from this there are many other varieties which are grown depending on the different seasons. There are many varieties like IIPR 96-4, BL 63, Arun, Amber, IIPR 98, Hur-15 and HPR 35.
Removal of old crop residues should be done at the beginning of field preparation for planting of Rajma. Which farmers can also use to make organic fertilizers. After removing the residue, deep plowing should be done with a rotating plow. Then apply appropriate amount of old manure in the field and mix it in the soil.
Three sloping plowing should be done in the field to mix the fertilizer in the soil. After that, water the field and thresh the field. Three to four days after sifting, the soil should be fertilized by running a rotavator in the field. And then make a field level with a pat.
Method and timing of seed sowing
Kidney seedlings are prepared by drilling in flat soil. Kidney seeds should be processed before sowing in the field. The right amount of carbendazim should be used to process its seeds. In addition to carbendazim, farmers can process its seeds with cow urine. About 120 kg seed is sufficient for cultivation of Rajma in one hectare.
Kidney seeds are sown in rows by drill in flat soil. When sowing seeds in rows, spacing one to one and half feet apart in each row. And the distance between the seeds in the rows is about 10 to 15 cm. In addition, its seeds have been planted on dams in some places. For this, a distance of one to one and a half feet has been kept in the buns. When planting its seeds, it should stand about 8 cm down so that germination is good.
Rajma is cultivated all over India based on different seasons. It is cultivated in hilly areas during kharif season. Because during that time the climate is normal. In the meanwhile planting should be done in June in hilly areas to get good yield. It is cultivated in the plains along with the rabi crop. Meanwhile, it is sown in November in Northeast India. Planting should be done in other places after mid-September.
Irrigation of plants
Kidney plants do not require much irrigation. Its seeds should be watered about 20 to 25 days after planting in the field. But farmers who plant their seeds in dry land should water the field immediately after sowing the seeds. Then lightly water the field to retain moisture till the seeds germinate. After germination of seedlings, water the plants at intervals of 20 days. Its plants need four to five liters of water.
Fertilizers are generally required for the cultivation of kidney beans. For its cultivation, at the time of plowing the field, about 10 to 15 carts of old manure are mixed in the soil. And DAP as a chemical fertilizer. Spray about 120 kg crop per hectare. In addition spray 60 kg N in the field. Chemical fertilizers should be sprayed during last plowing in the field. Good yield is obtained by spraying 25 kg urea on the kidney bean plant at the time of flowering.
Weed control in kidney bean cultivation can be done by both chemical and natural methods. Naturally, weed control is done by removing weeds from the trees. During natural weed control in kidney bean plants, the first weeds should be removed about 20 days after sowing. The first weeding of the trees should be done lightly. So that the roots of the trees will not be injured in the beginning. The second weeding should be done 15 to 20 days after the first weeding. Two shovels of his seedlings are enough.
When planting, appropriate amount of pendimethalin should be used for chemical weed control. Pendimethalin should be sprayed in bean plant immediately after sowing. Therefore, weeds cannot grow in the field. And even if they are born, their proportions are very low.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Rajma trees are prone to many diseases. If they are not taken care of in time, there will be huge loss of product.
Waterlogging causes stem rot disease on kidney bean plants. The effects of this disease are more pronounced during the germination of seedlings. Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during this time. As the disease progresses, the size of the spots also increases. And the leaves start to turn yellow and fall off. Carbendazim should be sprayed on the plants in appropriate quantity to control the disease.
Angular spots in kidney bean disease are spread by fungi. When the disease strikes, reddish brown spots appear on the leaves of the tree. As the disease progresses, the size of the spots increases. As a result, the leaves wither. As a result, the growth of trees stops. Carbendazim should be sprayed on the plants in appropriate quantity to control the disease.
In mahogany trees, mahogany disease is seen while preparing beans. The pests of this disease affect the growth of the plant by absorbing the sap of the soft parts of the plant. Due to the effects of this disease, the size of the beans becomes abnormal. Imidachloroprid or methyl dimeton should be sprayed on the plants in proper quantity to control the disease.
In pod cultivation, pod borer disease causes severe loss of yield. It is a kit disease that occurs on kidney bean trees. Whose larvae prick its pods and eat its seeds. The growth of this disease causes more damage to the product. Apply neem oil, monocrotophos or NPV on the plants to prevent this disease. Spray.
The effect of this disease is seen on the leaves of kidney bean trees. Insects of this disease live by making tunnels in the leaves of trees. And eat the green part of the leaves. Therefore, the leaves stop the process of photosynthesis. As the disease progresses, the shape of the trees remains dwarfed. Imidachloroprid or dimethoate should be sprayed on the plants in appropriate quantity to control the disease.
About 120 to 130 days after sowing, bean seedlings are ready to ripen. In the meantime, its plants should be separated from the soil surface. After that the seedlings should be collected in the field and after drying for a few days they should be taken out with the help of machine. After that the farmers can store the goods of Rajma till they get good price in the market.
Income and profit
The average yield of Rajma varieties grown in different regions is about 25 quintals per hectare. And the market price of Rajma pulses is around Rs. 8,000 per quintal. According to this, farmers can easily get income from one hectare to one and half lakh.