Petha is a pumpkin fruit. Also called Kashiphal, Kumhara and Kushmanda. Its plants grow in the form of vines. In India, it is mostly grown in Uttar Pradesh. Where people also consider his farming to be gambling farming. Because after getting good price, farmers earn a lot from its cultivation. But if the price is low, it is difficult to pay the price.
Pethe is used in food in many ways. This makes agra petha (sweets), which has its own special identity. It is mostly used for making sweets. Its ripe fruits are used for making sweets. Its raw fruits are used as vegetables.
Since pethe cultivation is more productive at lower cost, even small farmers can do it easily. Its cultivation takes three to four months. The temperate climate is ideal for its cultivation. Its seedlings grow well in summer. Excessive rainfall is not suitable for its cultivation.
If you are also thinking of cultivating it, today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
Fertile land with proper drainage of water is required for cultivation of paddy. But to get good yield, summer grown varieties can be grown in heavy clay soils. And sandy loam soil is suitable for cultivation of Zyde. This is because sandy loam soil does not retain water due to excess rainfall during this period. The pH of the soil for its cultivation. The value should be between 6 and 8.
Climate and temperature
Pethe can be easily grown in tropical climates. It is cultivated in India during summers and monsoons. The winter season is not suitable for its cultivation. Its plants cannot grow in the cold season. Its seedlings need warm weather to grow. Its trees have a general need for rain. But when the fruit is ripe, the rains spoil the fruit.
Its plants need normal temperature for early germination. Temperatures around 15 degrees affect the germination of its seeds. After germination, its plants grow easily at a temperature of 30 to 40 degrees. But high temperatures stunt the growth of plants.
There are many types of petha. Who are ready to take more production.
This variety of pethe is taken as a late crop. Used for making vegetables and desserts. The weight of one fruit is about 7 to 8 kg. The yield of this species is up to 300 quintals per hectare.
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Kashiphal can be grown in both seasons. One fruit weighs 7 to 10 kg. Plants of this genus begin to bear fruit 120 days after sowing. Whose yield is around 300 quintals per hectare.
In this variety one seedling starts bearing fruit 120 days after sowing. The yield per hectare is 500 to 600 quintals. One fruit weighs about 12 kg. The anus of the fruit is white. This variety is cultivated mainly during summer season.
Trees of this species are found tall. Seeds mature 110 to 120 days after planting. The yield of seedlings is 250 to 300 quintals per hectare. The flesh of this variety is thick and yellow in color. One fruit weighs about 5 kg.
Plants of this genus Petha are formed 115 to 120 days after sowing. The fruits are round in shape. The yield per hectare is 550 to 600 quintals. One fruit weighs about 12 kg. Whose anus looks white.
Plants of this species mature about 130 days after sowing. Whose yield per hectare has been found to be more than 350 quintals. Raw fruits of this variety are used for making vegetables. Its fruits can be stored for a long time.
Apart from this, there are many other varieties taken at different times for higher production, including BSS-987, Narendra Advance, Coimbatore 2, Kalyanpur Pumpkin-1, Pusa Hybrid, Narendra Amrit, BSS-988., IIPK-226. , Shankar Narendra Kashiphal-1 and CM14 are many more varieties.
For field cultivation, deep plowing should be done by first plowing the field by destroying the remnants of old crops in the field. After that leave the field for a few days. So that harmful pests in the soil are destroyed by sunlight. Then apply old manure in the form of organic manure and mix it well in the soil. Two to three sloping plowing should be done by field tillage to mix the fertilizer in the soil.
If you are planting as a summer crop, then after plowing the field, carry water and thresh the field. Two to three days after plowing the field, when the topsoil appears slightly dry, plow the field with a rotavator and sow. After that, keep a distance of 3 to 4 meters in the field and prepare dhorenuma vapa.
Method and timing of seed sowing
Petha seeds should be processed before planting. Apply appropriate amount of Thiram or Carbendazim for seed processing. About 6 to 8 kg of seed is suitable for sowing in one hectare.
Its seeds are sown in field beds inside the dam. The seeds should be spaced one to one and half feet apart when planting on the embankment. And two seeds should be planted in one place. Seeds should be sown at a depth of 2 to 3 cm in the soil.
Petha is cultivated in India during summer and monsoon. Sowing of summer crop should be done from last week of February to mid-March. For rainfed crop, its seeds should be sown from late June to mid-July. Planting is done after March in hilly areas.
Irrigation of plants
Pethe trees generally need irrigation. Rainfed crops do not require early irrigation. But if it does not rain on time and the plants need irrigation, they should be watered as required. Pethe trees need more irrigation in summer crop.
When planting Pethe, water the plants twice a week. During the summer season, its plants grow well by watering at the right time. When there is a shortage of water during flowering and fruiting of the plant, its yield decreases. For this reason, do not allow water deficiency in plants during flowering and fruit formation.
Fertilizer is required for cultivation of pethe like other grape crops. For this purpose, while preparing the field at the beginning, old manure like 15 carts per hectare should be thrown in the field and mixed in the soil. So 80 kg DAP is used as chemical fertilizer. Spray at the time of last plowing in the field.
In addition, about 50 kg N should be given twice in the form of chemical fertilizers along with watering the plants twice. The first dose should be given before flowering during seedling development and the second dose during fruit development.
Weed control is very important in petha cultivation. Because its trees spread in the form of vines. Therefore, weeds in the field cause many types of pest diseases to the plants. Its effect is seen on the growth and production of plants. It is better to control weeds naturally while planting. In natural weed control, first weeding should be done about 20 to 25 days after sowing. After that remaining weeding should be done at intervals of 15 days. For weed control in its plants, only three stems are required.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Many types of diseases are seen in the trees of Peth. If they are not controlled in time, there is huge loss of crop.
Red pumpkin beetle
Red tuber beetle disease can appear on its plants at any stage. Insects of this disease make irregularly shaped curved holes in the leaves of trees. This stunts the growth of plants. Proper spraying of fenvalerate, chlorpyrifos or cypermethrin should be done on the plants to control the disease.
The effect of white fly disease is seen on the leaves of the plant. Insects cause extensive damage to the leaves of the plant. The white fly stays on the lower surface of the leaves and absorbs the sap. As a result, the leaves turn yellow and die. Proper spraying of Imidacloprid or Endosulfan should be done on the plant to control the disease.
The effect of this disease is more visible on the trees with the change of seasons. The disease kits destroy the plant by absorbing the sap of the soft parts of the plant. The insects are small in size and appear green, black and yellow. Which attack trees in swarms. Imidacloprid 17.8 SL or Dimethoate should be sprayed on the plant to control the disease.
Fruit fly disease in petha trees causes the most damage to plant production. Insects of this disease lay eggs on fruits. And the larvae that hatch from its eggs enter the fruit and destroy it. The effect is visible on his income. Apply appropriate amount of endosulfan on the seedlings to control the disease.
Powdered asita is also called powder mildew. When the disease starts, white powder appears on the leaves of the trees. As the disease progresses, it becomes useless on the leaves of the whole plant. So the plant stops the process of photosynthesis. And stunts the growth of the plant. Hexaconazole or Myclobutanil should be sprayed on the seedlings in appropriate quantity to control the disease.
Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during the growing season due to outbreaks of fruit rot. In its fruit, the disease occurs when the fruit is kept in the soil in the same position for several days in a row. Fruits should be inverted to prevent this disease. And diseased fruits should be removed and thrown out of the field. In addition, appropriate spraying of tebuconazole or validamycin should be applied on the plants when the disease appears. So that the disease kit does not spread and harm other fruits.
Its fruits are extracted in two ways. Its raw fruits are extracted for vegetables. Also called early harvest. For early harvesting of fruits, they should be plucked only when they look good, before the fruits ripen. The ripe fruits are harvested after the fruits are fully ripe. Once the fruit is removed, the fruit should be sent to the market for sale.
Income and profit
The average yield of all varieties of fruits is about 400 to 500 quintals. If the market price is good then the farmers also get good price for the crop. Farmers can easily get one to two lakhs from one hectare if they get good price.