Cucumber is a cash crop grown in the pumpkin category. Which was first produced in India. In India it is cultivated as Zaid crop. The length of the cucumber fruit is about one foot. Which is used as a vegetable and salad. The fruits are light green in color. Eating cucumber in summer is beneficial for health. Eating it in summer reduces the risk of heatstroke.
Its vegetation spreads in the form of vines. Cucumber is grown all over India based on different seasons. Sandy loam soil is best suited for its cultivation. Its plants need more dry weather. It cannot be cultivated for centuries. Today, farmers are earning good income from cucumber farming.
If you also want to make a good profit by cultivating it, today we will give you complete information about its cultivation.
Cucumber cultivation requires well drained and fertile soil with rich organic matter. So it is better to grow it in sandy clay to get more yield. The pH of the soil for its cultivation. The value should be normal.
Climate and temperature
The temperate climate is best suited for cucumber cultivation. Its trees need normal rainfall to grow. The summer season is best suited for its cultivation. This is because excessive heat increases the quality of cucumber. Its trees do not tolerate winter.
Cucumber seeds require a temperature of about 20 degrees for early germination. After germination, seedlings need a temperature of 25 to 30 degrees for growth. Its plants can tolerate maximum temperatures around 35 degrees. If the temperature is higher than this, the flowers on the trees fall off before flowering.
Very few varieties of cucumber are available in the market. The main reason is that government agencies do not pay much attention to their development. But there are still some indigenous and hybrid varieties. From which the farmers get good income.
This variety of cucumber has been developed by scientists to get higher yields. The fruits of this variety are of normal length. Whose yield per hectare is about 150 to 180 quintals. The flesh of its fruit is soft and light green.
The fruits of this variety of cucumber are light greenish yellow in color. Its fruits are very tender. The bitterness of its fruit is very rare. Whose yield is around 200 quintals per hectare. And the length of its fruit is found to be about one foot.
The yield of this variety of cucumber has been found to be more than 200 quintals per hectare. This is an early maturing variety of cucumber. The length of fruits of this variety is more. And their color looks light yellow. In India, this species is grown in some states of North India.
Durgapuri cucumber is widely grown in the surrounding states of Rajasthan. The fruits of this variety ripen early. Up to 200 quintals per hectare can be produced with good cultivation. The fruits of this variety are light yellow in color. On which groove stripes appear.
In India this caste is more prevalent in North India. The fruits of this type of plant are softer and more fleshy. Whose yield per hectare has been found to be more than 150 quintals. The fruit tastes very good.
This variety of cucumber is taken as an early crop. Production of this breed is normal. The fruits are light green in color. Its seeds can germinate easily even at low temperatures. Its fruits show very few diseases.
Apart from this there are other varieties like Nirmal and Chandra which are grown in different places.
In order to cultivate cucumber, first remove all types of grass in the field and then plow the field by reversing the soil. Then put old manure in the field and mix it well in the soil. The field should be plowed two to three times to mix the fertilizer in the soil.
After plowing, water the field. Three to four days after plowing the field, when the surface soil becomes slightly dry, a good plowing should be done by running a rotavator in the field. This makes the soil look humid. After operating the rotavator, level the field. Its seeds are sown by making flat land and beds. To cultivate the mead, the farmer should prepare the mead keeping proper distance. It is planted on flat land by making dhorenuma beds.
For cucumber cultivation, its seedlings are planted in the form of seeds and nursery seedlings. About 3 kg seed per hectare is sufficient for sowing in seed form. It takes two to two and a half kilos of seeds to make a seedling. Cucumber seedlings are prepared from seeds 20 to 25 days before planting. Which is formed only through seeds. To create seedlings in the nursery, rows are spaced 5 cm apart in the beds. And when the seedlings are ready. They are then planted on a field embankment.
Method and timing of seed sowing
Cucumber seeds are sown in two ways. There should be a spacing of one to one and half meter spacing for each seedling to be planted on the seedbed. When sowing seeds on waffles, sow seeds on both sides of the bed. At the time of transplanting in dhorenuma beds, it should grow inside the beds of both its seeds and seedlings. When cultivating in this way, the distance between the cattle stalks should be about two to three meters. And when sowing in both the ways the distance between the trees should be one to one and half feet.
Cucumber seeds and plants are transplanted all over India at different times. It is grown as a crop of Zaid in the plains of northern India. In the meantime, sow the seeds in March. Planting is done after March in hilly areas where winter is more. And in South India, planting starts only after the month of January.
Irrigation of plants
Cucumber seeds and seedlings are planted in moist soil. Therefore, the seeds do not need water immediately. But at the time of transplantation as a seedling, its seedlings should be watered immediately. Its plants need more irrigation. Its plants should be watered twice a week in summer. The lack of moisture in his plants causes damage to the product. When flowers and fruits are coming on the plants, water the plants lightly. It is not good to store water during this period.
For cucumber cultivation, old manure at the rate of 15 ha / ha should be mixed in the field at the beginning. And before applying chemical fertilizers in the field, the soil should be tested. Chemical fertilizers should be sprayed as required during final plowing of the field after testing.
But farmers who generally use chemical fertilizers have two to three bags of N.P. The last plowing of the field should be done at the rate of per hectare. In addition, if 25 kg of urea is sprayed before flowering, there is a difference in production.
Weed control is as important in cucumber cultivation as any other vine crop. This is because its vine spreads on the surface of the soil and develops on its own. Therefore, weeds grown in the field cause many diseases on its plants. Weed control is essential for their prevention.
For control of weeds in cucumber cultivation, pale blue hen should be done about 20 to 25 days after transplanting. Two to three pods are sufficient for the production of cucumber. The remaining spade should be done at intervals of 20 days after the first planting.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Cucumber plants are prone to many diseases. If left unmanaged, they can be left astray and lose the right path.
Red beetle disease is most commonly seen on the leaves of cucumbers in cucumber cultivation. This disease causes irregularly shaped crooked holes in the leaves of the tree. This stunts the growth of plants. When the disease progresses, the entire crop is destroyed. Proper doses of Carbaryl or Cypermethrin should be sprayed on the seedlings to control the disease.
The fungus below
Downy mildew is a bacterial disease. The disease causes the leaves to turn yellow. As the disease progresses, the leaves of the trees turn completely yellow and begin to rot. This stops the growth of the plant. Mancozeb should be sprayed on the seedlings in appropriate quantity to control the disease.
Black spot disease
Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during the early stages of the disease. Which gradually turn dark black. As the disease progresses, the size of the spots becomes larger. This spoils the fruit. In addition, the symptoms of the disease can be seen on the leaves of trees. When the disease occurs, black spots form on the lower surface of the leaves. Appropriate amount of Phytolan or Blitax should be sprayed on the plants to control this disease.
Powdery mildew is found on all reptile crops. At the onset of the disease, white powder appears on the leaves of the plant. The growth of the disease on the plants causes white powder to accumulate on the entire leaves. So the plant stops the process of photosynthesis. Proper application of Kerthen LC or Hexaconazole should be sprayed on the plants to control the disease.
Fruit fly disease causes severe damage to cucumber production. The pest lays eggs on fruits. The larvae that emerge from it go inside the fruit and spoil the fruit. So the fruit looks spoiled from a certain place. Also called fruit fruit. Proper spraying of Malathion or Dimethoate on the seedlings to control the disease.
Cucumber fruits are ready for harvest about 80 to 90 days after sowing. When its fruits are less ripe and tender, they should be harvested. Its soft and less ripe fruits fetch higher market prices. Therefore, farmers should harvest fruits three times a week to get good market price.
Income and profit
The yield per hectare of different varieties of cucumber has been found to be around 200 quintals. The market price of cucumber varies according to the demand. Depending on the price ranging from Rs. 1 to Rs. 30 per kg, farmers can easily earn an average of one to two lakhs at a time.