Gladiolus is grown as a cash crop. Gladiolus is the most popular cut flower. Its trees are 2 to 8 feet long. The plant bears flowers. Its flowers are like stars. Its flowers do not rot for about a week. So their use is increasing.
The flowers that bloom on the branches of Gladiolus are red, blue, pink, green and yellow. So people plant them to enhance the beauty of their homes and gardens. Many species of its plants are found. Both flowers and nodules of his plant are sold. Therefore, his farming is becoming a profitable farming for the farmers.
Gladiolus can be grown in almost all parts of India. Sandy loam soil is best suited for its cultivation. Shade space is not suitable for its cultivation. This is because planting in the shade spoils its flowers and prevents the plants from growing. Fragrant climate is best suited for its cultivation.
If you are also thinking of cultivating it, today we are going to give you complete information about its cultivation.
Gladiolus cultivation requires well drained fertile soil. It is better to grow in sandy clay at the right time to get more yield. For its cultivation, the pH value of the soil should be between 5.5 and 6.5.
Climate and temperature
Temperate climate is ideal for stem cultivation. Gladiolus can be planted in both winter and summer seasons. However, due to extreme cold in winter, water retains on the flowers and spoils the flowers. Rainfall during flowering on its trees is harmful. Because when it is raining, the flowers are bad. Direct sunlight is suitable for the growth of gladiolus plants.
Gladiolus plants need a normal temperature for early germination. After germination, its seedlings require a minimum temperature of 16 degrees and a maximum temperature of 25 degrees for growth. In addition, its plants can survive a maximum temperature of 40 degrees in summer. Temperatures above 30 degrees Celsius reduce the quality of flowers.
There are currently more than 260 species of gladiolus. Which are based on the length of the plant stalks and the color of the flowers.
Gladiolus plants of this genus are found to be about two and a half feet in length. Each of its plants produces about 80 to 90 knots. It has 15 to 17 small flowers on one stalk. Whose color is white. Its seedlings are ready for harvest about 120 days after sowing.
Seedlings of this genus Gladiolus start yielding about three months after planting. 10 to 12 flowers are found in the stem of a tree, their color appears red. Its flowers do not rot for many days. Its cast is found to be about 3 feet in length.
Plants of this species start producing about 110 to 120 days after sowing. Whose color is white. A bunch of 17 small flowers are found on one of its branches. The branches of this type of plant are found to be about two and a half feet in length.
Plants of this species start producing about 100 to 115 days after sowing. The stalks of this tree are found around two and a half feet. The flowers that bloom on it are purple in color. 15 to 17 flowers are found in a cluster in one branch.
Seedlings of this variety start yielding about 110 days after planting. It has 12 to 15 flowers on one stalk. Whose color appears golden yellow. One plant has 15 nodules. The flowers formed on its nodules are found in bunches.
This is an early maturing variety of gladiolus. Seedlings of this variety start yielding about 85 days after planting. Its sticks are oblong in shape. On which about 10 pale flowers are found. One plant produces about 35 to 40 nodules.
Plants of this genus Gladiolus start yielding about 100 days after sowing. About 65 to 70 nodules are found in a single tree. On its stalk light yellow flowers are found in bunches. It has an average of 15 flowers on one stalk. And the length of his rod is about three feet.
Seedlings of Punjab Flame variety start yielding in about 110 days after planting. This variety is mainly used for decoration. The flowers of this species are light pink and red in the center. From one plant 55 to 60 small nodules are formed.
Rose Supreme Gladiolus
The flowers of this genus Gladiolus look orange. Which is found to be three to four feet in length. Its flowers stay fresh for about two weeks. Which can be used as decoration.
The flowers of this genus appear yellow. Its trees are three to four feet long. Its plants have a lot of nodules. Plants of this species start producing about 110 days after sowing. Its flowers grow in clusters on the stalk. There are 12 to 15 flowers in a stalk.
Apart from this there are many other varieties which should get flowers of different colors. There are many types like White Friendship, Najrana, Snow White, Oscar, TS-14, Red Beauty, White Prosperity, Dreams, White Prosperity and Meera.
To cultivate gladiolus, the soil should be kept open for a few days by deep plowing with plow. After keeping it open for a few days, add old manure and mix it well in the soil. Two to three sloping plowing should be done by field tillage to mix the fertilizer in the soil.
Gladiolus tubers are planted in moist soil. For this, the field should be threshed by watering the field. After plowing, when the soil becomes dry, plow the field with a rotavator. As a result, the soil in the field becomes humus rich. Then level the field with your feet. So that the field does not have to face water logging problems during monsoons.
Seed dosage and treatment
Tubers are used as seeds for the cultivation of gladiolus. One acre of Gladiolus requires about 65000 tubers. These tubers should be treated with appropriate amount of bavistin before planting. Therefore, early diseases of tubers do not affect the plants and seed germination is good.
Method and timing of seed sowing
Gladiolus tubers are planted by making beds in flat soil. For this, prepare a maid by keeping a healthy distance in the field. Urosthi tubers are planted at a distance of about 20 cm on the waffle. When planting tubers, they should be placed 5 to 7 cm deep in the soil. Dry in the room. Therefore, germination of tubers is good.
Gladiolus tubers are planted at different times throughout India, depending on the different seasons. In northern India, it is grown in the plains before rabi crops. In the meantime, the tubers should be planted in September. In hilly areas it can be planted till June. Therefore, its production is longer in hilly areas.
Irrigation of plants
Gladiolus plants need more irrigation. Moisture in the field should be maintained to get good yield. After planting the tubers in the field, water all the tubers first when they come out of the soil. In winter, water its plants every 10 to 12 days. And during the summer season, it is best to water the plants at intervals of 5 days. When the flowering process is complete and the leaves turn yellow, stop watering.
Gladiolus varieties require common fertilizer. When plowing the field at the beginning, about 15 carts of old manure should be thrown in the field and it should be well mixed in the soil. In addition, 100 kg N, 100 kg P and 200 kg K should be mixed in the form of chemical fertilizer and sprayed in the field at the time of last plowing as per hectare.
In addition, when three or four leaves are formed on the plants, spray about 25 kg per hectare in the form of chemical fertilizer. And after about a month, again spray the same amount of fertilizer on the plants during irrigation.
Weed control is very important in the cultivation of gladiolus. Weed control in its plants is done chemically and naturally. In order to control weeds by chemical method, spray the field with appropriate amount of glyphosate 15 days before planting.
For natural weed control, about 20 days after planting the tubers, the plants should be lightly weeded. Gladiolus plants require four to five shoots for weed control. The remaining spade after the first seedling should be spaced 12 to 15 days apart.
Plant diseases and their prevention
Gladiolus plants have a variety of diseases. If this is not stopped in time, the plants will deteriorate quickly.
In Gladiolus plants, infectious diseases have a major effect on its production. The pests of this disease accumulate on the soft parts of the plant and absorb the sap of the plant. This stops the growth of the plant. Appropriate amount of Dimothet Roger or Malathion should be sprayed on the seedlings to control the disease.
It is an insectivorous disease of gladiolus plants. The pests of this disease initially appear pale yellow. Which injure them by absorbing the sap from the leaves. When this disease occurs, the growth of the plant stops. Therefore, the flowers on the trees do not bloom well. Proper amount of Malathion or Neem oil should be sprayed on the seedlings to control this disease.
The effect of wilt disease in gladiolus plants is observed during plant growth during the summer season. When this disease occurs, the growth of the plant is stunted. And the leaves turn yellow and begin to dry out. After a few days, the plant dries out completely and is destroyed. Trichoderma weirdi should be sprayed on the roots of the plant in appropriate proportions to control the disease.
Darkening of the nodules
In gladiolus plants the effect of this disease is seen on the nodules of the plant. The effect of this disease is to produce dark brown spots on the nodules of the plant. Its effect is seen on the yield of trees. To prevent this disease, treat the tumors by dipping them in appropriate amount of thiopionate methyl solution.
Gladiolus seedlings start yielding in about 100 days. When the flowers bloom well on the stems of the trees, cut them off with a sharp weapon. Cutting sticks should always be done early in the morning. And after harvesting, keep it in a pot filled with water. They should then be sent to the market for sale.
About 70 to 80 days after flowering, their nodules are removed. For this, after removing the knots, its leaves should be removed and cleaned. After that, after cleaning the lumps in Bavistin solution, dry them in the shade for a few days. And when the bales are dry, they are packed in sacks and sent to market. Or can be stored at the right temperature.
Income and profit
In the cultivation of gladiolus, both its flowers and nodules are obtained as a product. It yields about three lakh flowers and three lakh bales per hectare. They can earn a lot by selling in the farmers market.